The reference number shown at the end of a line in red refers to a coin held in the collection.
The first 3 digits relate to Ron's personal coin database. The next 4 to 5 digits refer to the Seaby’s Catalogue number. The last number relates to the folio number in the collection.
As an example the coin of Darius I has a reference number of 253/3428/1. This coin is therefore catalogued as follows:

It is the 253rd coin purchased by Ron; it is to be found under Seaby’s catalogue number 3428 (Greek Coins and Their Values by David R. Sear); it is held in the collection under Folio 1
(The first coin on display because it is the earliest coin)


BC 536 The edict of Cyrus, Jews began rebuilding the Temple in Jerusalem
BC 529-522 Cambyses King of Persia
BC 522 Darius divides Persian Empire into 20 Satraps (provinces)
BC 510-486 Darius I,The Great (Old Test.EZRA Chap6.) 253/3428/1
BC 516 Rebuilding of Temple, consecration BC 515.
BC 510Rome declared a Republic, last King,Tarquin the Proud expelled
BC 499Ionian Greeks revolt against Persian rule.
BC 494Rome:Office of Tribune created to protect rights of plebes. Ionian revolt collapses.
BC 490Darius launches attack on mainland Persia starting the Persian Wars. Persian armies defeated by Greeks at Marathon
BC 485Death of Darius I, decline of Persia comences
BC 485-465Persian king Xerxes I succeeds Darius
BC 483Rich silver strike at Mount Larium provides Athens withfunds to expand its fleet.
BC 480Persians defeated by Greeks at Salamine and Plataea (BC 479). Acropolis is destroyed by the Persians.

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Helenist period begins during which Bible is translated into Greek (Septuagint)
BC 479 Battle of Platea; end of Persian invasion of Greece.
BC 477Commencement of Athenian ascendency
BC 474City States, Syracuse in Sicily 229/929/2
BC 464-424Persian king Artaxerxes
BC 445War between Athens and Sparta ends with 30 year truce. The prophet Malachi; Nehemiah rebuilds walls of Jerusalem. The Evolving Bible. A Theoretical timeline
BC 444-397Jewish revival of Judea with Nehemiah’s arrival in Jerusalem. Redaction of Torah climaxes with Ezra reading out the completed text in Temple courtyard for the first time.
BC 440Ezra (The Scribe) and Nechemia re-dedicate Second Temple
BC 431Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta begins
BC 425City States,Gela in Sicily 149/1095/3 City States, Akragas in Sicily 195/?/4
BC 415War renewed between Athens and Sparta
BC 402End of Peloponnesian War.
BC 400City of Carthage in North Africa 159/6444/5 City of Carthage 246/6520/? City states, Syracuse in Sicily  208/1193/6
BC 399Socrates (469-399) tried on false charges of impiety and corupting youth. Found guilty, he was put to death by drinking hemlock.
BC 395Coalition between Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Argos against the Spartans
BC 393City of Athens 202/2537/7
BC 390Gauls from northern Italy capture Rome,sack city and withdraw
BC 385Plato starts teaching in Athens.
BC 375City of Carthage in North Africa 209/?/8 City of Carthage 223/6526/9 City of Kalymna  224/4982/10 
BC 359-362Philip II of Macedon 214/6698/11
BC 350City of Kardia (Thrace) 242/1598/12 City of Gargara 239/4089/13
BC 343Aristotle becomes tutor to young Alexander of Macedon.
BC 338Romans begin to use coins
BC 336Philip II assasinated at Aegae 189/6730
BC 334-323Alexander III (The Great) Alexander the Great succeeds Philip II  189/6730/16
Alexander the Great 107/?/14
Alexander the Great 108/?/15
Alexander the Great 238/6739/17
BC 333Persian Empire defeated by Alexander, all Near East comes under influence of Hellinism.
BC 332-63The Hellenistic and Hasmonean Periods in Israel
BC 332Alexander destroyed Tyre, Egypt and Jerusalem submit to Greece
BC 332Alexander the Great conquers Jerusalem.
BC 331Battle of Arbeles and the fall of the Persian empire.
BC 323Death of Alexander, period of struggle for supremacy by his Generals. Ptolemaic Dynasty begins with Ptolemy I becoming King of Egypt, the Seleukid Dynasty with Seleuchus I in Syria and Messopotamia.

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Seleucids, dynasty of Macedonian kings that reigned in the Middle East from the 4th to the 1st century BC. Established when the empire of Alexander the Great was partitioned among his followers, the Seleucid kingdom originally extended eastwards from Asia Minor into what is now Pakistan. The most important Seleucid kings were Seleucus I, Antiochus I, Antiochus II, Seleucus II, Antiochus III, and Antiochus IV, whose reigns spanned the period between 312 BC and 163 BC with brief interruptions.

The Seleucid kingdom had two capitals: Antioch in Syria (now Antakya, Turkey) and Seleucia on the Tigris in Mesopotamia. The Seleucids were Greeks in language and culture, and they encouraged Greek colonists to settle in their domains. Nevertheless, in their autocratic rule they followed the example of their Syrian, Mesopotamian, and Persian predecessors. Beginning with Antiochus II, they were worshipped as gods. They were frequently involved in wars with the Ptolemies, a Macedonian dynasty that had established itself in Egypt. After 250 BC the Seleucids gradually lost control of the lands east of the Euphrates River and were expelled from Asia Minor. Syria, the last remaining part of their kingdom, was annexed by Rome in 64 BC.

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BC 320Soter I invaded Syria and captured Jerusalem
BC 319-297Kassander, son of Antipator the Regent 196/6755/18
BC 312-283 Seleukos I (Nikator), Seleukid Dynasty begins 142/6852/19
BC 312Via Appia,Rome's first highway,built.
BC 305-283Ptolemy I (Soter),close friend of Alex. 150/7765/20
BC 301Bible translated into Greek (Septuagint).
BC 300City of Argos 140/?/21 City of Myrina 148/4220/22
BC 294-288Demetrios Poliorketes,son of Antigonus 204/6774/24
BC 288-277Interregnum period in Macedonian Dynasty 109/6781/25 City of Akragas in Sicily 210/1032/26
BC 285-246Ptolemy II (Philadelphos) 137/7788/27 Ptolemy II  212/7774/28
Work begun on translating the Jewish Law into Greek. Appearance of the Hassidim (Pious) Onias II is High Priest
BC 280-261Antiochus I(Soter) 229/6878/29
BC 277-239Antigonas Gonatas 205/6788/30
BC 275cKamnaskires-Oredes III 237-5910/31 City of Syracuse 211/1218/32
Rome is undisputed ruler of Southern Italy.
BC 269Beginning of Roman Republic Coinage
BC 268First appearance of silver coinage, Denari
BC 264First record of gladiatorial combat
BC 264-261First Punic war with Carthage,Rome ultimately victors.
BC 261Antiochos II (Theos) 110/6879/33
BC 260Outbreak of first Punic War between Rome and Carthage
BC 246-227Antiochos (Hierax)
BC 246-226Seleukos II (Kallinikos)
BC 246-221Ptolemy III (Eurgetes) 186/7817/34
BC 239Egyptians introduce leap year into calendar
BC 226-223Seleukos III (Keraunos) 153/6929/35
BC 223-187Antiochus II (The Great) 228/6956/36
BC 222-220Molon (The Usurper)
BC 221-204Ptolemy IV (Philopater) 193/7843/37
BC 221-179Philip V 197/?/39
BC 220-214Achaios
BC 218-201Second Punic War
BC 218Hanibal of Carthage crossed the Alps
BC 215Great wall of China built
BC 205The Moneyers (tresviri monetales, the three mint officials), Wolf and Twins 169/99/40
BC 204Ptolemy V (Epiphanes) 198/7881/41
BC 200Inscription engraved on Rosetta Stone. The Old Testament translated into Greek (Septuaginta)
BC 198Antiochus III (The Great) took Palestine from Egypt.
Judea now under Syrian rule,favoured by Antiochus Syrian Hellodore at Jerusalem, Hellenis in Judea, Rivalry between High Priests Jason, Menelaus and Lysimaque
BC 197The Moneyers, Head of Roma 104/112/42
Rome defeats Philip I of Macedon at Cyniscephalae
BC 195The Moneyers, bust of Mercury 190/110/43
BC 190Rome crushes Antiochus the Great at Magnesia
BC 187-175Seleucus IV (Philopater) in Syria  191/6970/44
BC 180-176Cleopatra I, Mother of Ptolemy VI 146/7903/45
BC 180-145Ptolemy VI in Syria  145/7900/46; Ptolemy VI  234/7901/47
BC 179-168Perseus (Last of Macedonian Dynasty) 200/6807/48
BC 175-170Antiochos (Son of Seleukos IV)
BC 175-164Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) 188/5507/49
BC 175Construction of earliest known Roman pavement
BC 169Temple violated by Antiochus IV on his return from Egypt. Creation of the Essene sect. Antiochus IV campaigns in Egypt.
BC 168Persecution of Jews by Antiochus IV
BC 167Hasmoneans:The Maccabees revolt to defend Jewish religion
BC 167-166The priest Mattiathias organises opposition.
BC 165After four decisive victories over the Hellinistic armies, Mattiathias's son Judah the Maccabee re-consecrates the Temple (Chanukat Beit Ha-Mikdash)
BC 164-162Antiochos V (Eupator) in Syria.
BC 162-150Demetrios I (Soter) in Syria 241/7021/50
BC 162Timarchos
BC 155The Moneyers, Gaius Renius 106/160/51; Republican Bronze 138/149/52
BC 153First month of Roman year changed from March to January
BC 154Macabean revolt; Rule of the Hasmonaean Kings; independence of Jews until BC 63.
Alexander Balas kills Antiochus VI,becomes King of Syria

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Republican Rome and the Mediterranean World 150 - 95 BC

BC 150cEssene community settles in Qumran , where they remain until start of the Bar Kochba revolt 285 years later. The Biblical text written and stored there, the Dead Sea Scrolls, are the earliest surviving copies.
BC 150City States, Selge 141/5491/53
BC 150-145Alexander I (Balas)
BC 149Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage.
BC 148-118King Micipsa of Numidia 136/6597/54
BC 146Rome utterly destroys Carthage.
BC 145-140Demetrios II (Nikator) First Reign (See BC 129).
BC 145-122Antiochos VI (Dionysos) 187/708/55
BC 145-116Ptolemy VIII (Eurgetes) 194/?/56
BC 144Jonathan Maccabaeus murdered, suceeded by Simon the last of Mattathias's five sons. He names himself High Priest.
BC 142-138Tryphon
BC 141-137Establishment of the Hasmonean Dynasty.
BC 141Demetrios II (Nicator)
BC 140The Moneyers, Wolf suckling twins 112/Pom1/57
BC 141-129Antiochus VII, last Seleukid King of Syria
BC 138-129Antiochus VII (Sidetes) 240/7095/58
BC 135John Hyrcanus,High Priest,expands Judean territory and converts the Idumeans to Judaism.
BC 133Asia Minor now province of Rome, who control all the Mediterranean except Egypt
BC 131The Moneyers, L.Postumius Albinus 175/?/59
BC 129-125Demetrios II (Nikator) Second Reign (See BC 145-140)
BC 128-123Alexander II (Zebina)
BC 125-121Cleopatra I - Antiochus VIII 152-7139/60
BC 125Seleukos V The Moneyers, Porcia 117/Porc3/61
BC 121Rome conquers Southern Gaul
BC 121- 96Antiochos VIII (Grypos) 177/7143/63
BC 120Mithradetes VI (Eupator) 233/?/?
BC 116The Moneyers, M.Sergius Silus Sergia 156/1a/65
BC 114The Moneyers, M.Amelius L Aemilia 157/Aem/66
BC 113The Moneyers, P.Nerva, Voting in comitium 155/185/?
BC 113- 95Antiochos IX (Kyzikenos)

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BC 106Pompey the Great (born) 181/302/68
BC 105The Moneyers, L.Thorius Balbus 162/Thor1/69
BC 103-76Alexander Jannaeus, King and High Priest 105/6087/70; Alexander Jannaeus 139/6089/71; Alexander Jannaeus 174/6088/72; Alexander Jannaeus (mounted as charm) 244/6089/71
BC 103The Moneyers, Head of Mars 219/19/73
BC 100Julius Caesar (Gaius Julio Caesar) (born).
BC 98-93Philip Philadelphos 201/7214/75
BC 95-94Seleukos VI (Epiphanes Nikator)
BC 95-63Ariobarzanes I (Philoromaios) 221/7302/76
BC 95-98Demetrios III (Philopator)
BC 93Philip (Philadelphos)
BC 93Antiochos XI (Epiphanes Philadelphos)
BC 92City of Antiocheia in Syria 199/5853/77
BC 90Civil war in Rome between Marius and Sulla. Marius driven out.
The Moneyers, C.Vibeus C F Pansa 135/2/78
BC 88The Moneyers, Lucius Titurius Sabinus 116/222/79; The Moneyers, CN Lentulus Clodanius 121/50a/80
BC 88-84Antiochos XII (Dionysos). Sulla (Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix) gains Consulship of Rome.
BC 87Sulla deprived of his command by the Tribune Sulpicius, supported by his troops but not by his officers, marched on Rome and took the city by force.
BC 83-69Tigranes II of Armenia.
BC 83The Moneyers, C.Norbanus 154/Norb2/81
BC 81Sulla elected Dictator.
BC 79The Moneyers, L.Papius 158/Pap1/83; The Moneyers, Ti Claudius, serrated edge 131/6/82.
The Colisseum dedicated.
BC 73-71Revolt of Slaves under Spartacus.
BC 69-64Antiochos XIII (Asiatikos) - END OF SELEUKID DYNASTY.
BC 64The Moneyers, L.Roscius Fabatus 173/3/84.
BC 63-12Agrippa (Close friend of Augustus) 040/456/85; Agrippa, Crocodile chained to tree 206/455/86.
BC 63Roman General Pompey enters Israel to settle a civil war between the last of the Hasmonean princes and uses the occasion to annexe it as a Roman province.
Pompey captures Jerusalem 181/302/?
Judea now under Roman rule,Caesar confers privileges on Jews. Cicero becomes Consul in Rome.
BC 60Caesar returns from Spain, elected Consul 072/309/?.
First Triumvirate:Pompey,Caesar and Crassus.
BC 58-51Caesar campaigning in Gaul.
BC 54Caesar invaded Britain for second time.
BC 49Caesar crossed the Rubicon, the limit of his command, in defiance of the Roman Senate, precipitating the civil war. Pompey defeated by Caesar.
BC 48Pompey murdered in Egypt. Herod Governor of Galilee.
The Moneyers, Albinus Brutt  120/Pos10/87.
BC 48Caesar meets Cleopatra in Egypt.
BC 46Adoption of Julian calendar of 365 days and leap year. Caesar appointed Dictator for 10 years.
The Moneyers, Titus Carisius 103/Car2/88.
BC 44Caesar assasinated on the Ides of March (15th). Mark Antony takes command in Rome.
BC 43Octavian (Gaius Octavius), Caesar's heir, is elected Consul and forms the Second Triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus.
BC 42Second Triumvirate defeats Caesar's assassins at Philippi. Mark Antony becomes leader of Asia.
BC 41Mark Antony meets Cleopatra in Egypt.
BC 40cC.Cassius Longinus (one of the assassins of Julius Caesar) 161/323/89.
BC 40Mark Antony appoints Herod King of Judaea.
BC 39Herod the Great appointed King of the Jews by the Roman Senate.
BC 38Nero Claudius Drufus (Father of Claudius) 096/493/90.
BC 38Livia, wife of Octavian 243/446/91.
BC 37-4Herod, Prefect of Galilee, captures Jerusalem becomes King of Judea.
BC 34Oldest known computer constructed in bronze. Recovered in AD 1953.
BC 33Mark Antony 065/346/92.
BC 31Roman fleets commanded by Mark antony defeated by Octavian at Actium, Egypt now Roman province.
BC 30EGYPT: END OF PTOLEMAIC PERIOD with suicide of Cleopatra.
BC 30-AD 9cRabbi Hillel flourished.

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BC 27- AD14On 16 January Octavian received the title Augustus from the Senate, becoming first Emperor of Rome. Amongst many honours conferred upon him, the month Sextilis was henceforth called Augustus (August) 029/?/93; Augustus 046/425/94; Augustus 082/419/95.
BC 25Herod rebuilds Samaria.
BC 20Claudius, Drufus, and Antonia 168/490?/96.
BC 19Expansion of Temple Mount,renovation of Temple by Herod; Kingdom divided into Tetrarchies. In Judea and Samaria Archelus (etnarch),in Galilee, Herod Antipas and in the North East, Philip (tetrarch).
BC 15Germanicus (adopted name Germanicus Julio Caesar, before adoption was Nero Claudius Germanicus), father of Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus) 102/500/97.
BC 4Jesus born at Bethlehem (Probably correct date). Death of Herod. His kingdom divided among his three sons, one of whom, Archelaus, ruled in Jerusalem.
AD 6-9Coponius, Procurator under Augustus 226/5606/98.
AD 14-37Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus) 075/474/99.
AD 18-36Caiphus High Priest, nationalist revival by the Jews. First resistance; sect of the Zealots. Lysanias, tetrarch of Damas.
AD 26-36Pontius Pilate, Procurator of Judea provokes discontent with his policies.
AD 27Pantheon built in Rome by Agrippa.
AD 28Jesus baptised and starts public speaking.
AD 30Death of Jesus.
AD 33Christianity begins to spread in Samaria and Antioch.
AD 35Conversion of St.Paul on the road to Damascus.
AD 37-100cFlavius Josephus, Jewish soldier, historian, author of 'The History of the Jewish Wars' which covers the revolts by the Jews in AD 66-70.
AD 37-44Agrippa I,Grandson of Herod the Great 178/mes88/101.
AD 37-41Gaius (Caligula), the third son of Germanicus and Agrippina the elder 101/521/100.
AD 40-51Gotarzez II, King of Parthia 179/?/102.
AD 41-44Herod Agrippa, King of all Judea, becomes Jewish and re-unites the tetrarchies.
AD 41-54Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus) 022/537/103; Claudius 017/539/104; Claudius 232/500/105.
AD 43Conquest of Britain by Rome begins.
AD 50cKing Mega Soter 203/?/106.
AD 52-60Antonius Felix (Procurator under Nero) 207/5627/107; Antonius Felix 222/5626/108.
AD 54-68Nero (born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after adoption by Claudius he was named Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus) 014/?/109.
AD 55City of Antioch 147/5187/110.
AD 64Fire of Rome. Persecution of Christians by Nero.
AD 66Jewish rising against Rome,great war of extermination.
AD 67-68New revolt against the Romans.
AD 68Clodius Macer.
AD 68-69Second Revolt in Judaea (3rd Year) 185/k76/112.
AD 69ROMAN EMPERORS - THE YEAR OF THE FOUR EMPERORS: Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian.
AD 68-69Galba (Servius Sulpicius Galba), succeeded Nero, but the troops of the Rhine revolted against him under Vittellus, and he was killed on 15 January 69 BC. 083/623/111.
AD 69Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho), self-declared Emperor from January to October 69BC. 230/647/114.
AD 69Vitellius (Vitellius Aulus), Emperor April to December 69BC 126/654/113
AD 69-79Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) 064/?/115; Vespasian 073/677/116.
Before the fall of Jerusalem the Sage Yochanan Ben-Zakkai is allowed by Vespasian to move with his disciples to Yavne which then becomes the seat of the Sanhedrin or the Jewish High Court.
AD 70Jerusalem besieged and taken by Titus, son of Vespasian. Second Temple destroyed in August.
AD 70-134After Romans destroy the Second Temple, Rabbinical Sanhedrin moves to Yavneh, staying there until the start of the Bar Kochba revolt. The Jewish Biblical canon was arranged and finalised there.
AD 72Vespasian began building of Colosseum in Rome.
AD 73Masada falls to Roman General Silva; Jewish population scattered in Galilee and coastal areas.
AD 79Mount Vesuvius erupts buries Pompei and Herculaneum.
Julia Titi, daughter of Titus 180/770/117.
AD 79-81Titus 066/747/118; Titus 184/744/119; Titus (FORGERY) 245/?/246.
AD 81-96Domitian 055/813/120; Domitian 182/444/121; Domitian 215/811/122.
AD 82Arch of Titus built in Rome commemorating Titus's victory over the Jews.
AD 84Construction began of Roman baths at Bath in Somerset.

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AD 96- 98Nerva 100/849/123.
AD 98-117Trajan 023/922/124; Trajan 093/911/125; Trajan 143/1078/126.
AD 106Trajan destroys the desert civilisation of the Nabateans in the Negev and Transjordan, creating province of Arabia.
AD 114Trajan's Column erected in Rome.
AD 116Revolt against Rome by Jews outside Israel crushed by Trajan's General Quietus.
AD 117-138Hadrian 053/1019/128; Sabina, wife of Hadrian 089/?/127.
AD 120Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus publishes his De vita caesarum (Lives of the Caesars).
AD 122Hadrian visited Britain.
AD 132-135Bar Kochba revolt; Jerusalem renamed Aelia Capitolina by Hadrian and forbidden to Jews. Judea becomes Palestine. Galilee becomes centre of Jewish life and learning.
AD 136Aelius, adopted son of Hadrian 133/1117/129.
AD 138-161Antoninus Pius 039/1186/130.
AD 138-141Faustina Senior, wife of Antoninus Pius 081/1267/131.
AD 161Erection of Acropolis in Athens.
AD 161-180Marcus Aurelius 024/1349/134; Faustina Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius 015/1416/133.
AD 161-169Lucius Verus Co-Emp with Marcus Aurelius 101/1454/132.
AD 177-192Commodus 057/1508/136.
AD 177Crispina, wife of Commodus 095/1592/135.
AD 182Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus 097/1485/137.
AD 193Pertinax.
AD 193Didius Julianus.
AD 193-194Pescennius Niger.

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AD 193-211Septimius Severus 068/1682/139; Julia Domna,wife of Septimus Severus 087/1750/138.
AD 195-197Clodius Albinus.
AD 198-217Caracalla (Septimius Bassianus) 088/1790/140.
AD 200Judah HaNasi compiles the Mishna.
AD 202Plautilla, wife of Caracalla 183/1895/141.
AD 209-212Geta, Co-Emperor with his brother Caracalla 069/1917/142.
AD 212-216Baths of Caracalla constructed in Rome.
AD 212Roman citizenship extended to all freemen within the Roman Empire.
AD 217-218Macrinus 123/?/143.
AD 217Diadumenian, Co-Emperor with his father Macrinus.
AD 218-222Elagabalus 067/2003/144.
AD 218-224Julia Maesa, sister of Julia Domna 134/2083/145.
AD 219Julia Paula, wife of Elagabalus 213/2049/146.
AD 222-235Severus Alexander 056/2160/148.
AD 222Julia Soaemis, sister of Julia Domna 217/2070/147.
AD 235-238Maximinus I (Thrax) 151/2253/151.
AD 235Julia Mamaea 111/2206/149.
AD 235-238Maximus Caesar,son of Maximinus I 078/2277/150.

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AD 238Gordian I (Africanus).
AD 238Gordian II.
AD 238Balbinus.
AD 238Pupienus.
AD 238-244*Gordian III 047/?/152; Gordian III 079/2397/153.
AD 244-249Philip I (The Arab) 054/2475/154; Philip I 144/2512/155.
AD 247Philip II, Co-Emperor with his father Philip I 011/2571/156; Otacilla Severa, wife of Philip I 098/2542/157.
AD 248Pacatian.
AD 248Jotapian.
AD 249-251Trajan Decius 085/2612/158; Herrenia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius 129/2636/159.
AD 251Herennius Etruscus, Co-Emperor with father Trajan 160/2640/160.
AD 251Hostilian 218/2659/161.
AD 251-253Trebonianus Gallus 071/2681/162.
AD 251-253Volusian 115/2731/163.
AD 252Rome's European provinces invaded by Goths and others.
AD 253Aemilian.
AD 253-254Uranius Antoninus.
AD 253-260Valerian 043/2782/165.
AD 253-255Valerian II, eldest son of Gallienus 132/2971/164.
AD 253-268Gallienus 016/2892/167; Gallienus 018/2859/168; Salonina, wife of Gallienus 035/2947/169.
AD 253-260Mariniana,wife of Valerian 165/2829/166.
AD 259Saloninus, youngest son of Gallienus 077/2980/170.

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AD 259Postumus (Gallic Empire) 038/3010/172.
AD 260Macrianus.
AD 260-261Quietus 236/2998/171.
AD 260Regalianus.
AD 267Xenobia (The Palmyrene Empire).
AD 268-270Claudius II (Gothicus) 033/3127/174.
AD 268Laelianus (Gallic Empire).
AD 268Marius (Gallic Empire).
AD 269Victorinus(Gallic Empire) 032/3070/173.
AD 270-275Aurelian 052/3158/181.
AD 270Quintillus 062/?/175; Quintillus 084/3145/176; Severina, wife of Aurelian 119/3185/177
New wall built round Rome by Aurelian against barbarians.
AD 270-273Tetricus I (Gallic Empire) 010/3080/178; Tetricus I (Gallic Empire 004/3078/180.
AD 270Tetricus II (Gallic Empire) 094/3090/179.
AD 270Domitianus (Gallic Empire).
AD 271-272Vabalathus, Atheodorus (Palmyrene Empire) 009/3193/182.
AD 275-276Tacitus 034/3205/183.
AD 276Florianus 220/3226/184.
AD 276-282Probus 012/3250/185; Probus 013/3256/186.
AD 280Saturninus.
AD 282-283Carus 058/4776/187.
AD 283-285Carinus 059/3883/189.
AD 283Numerian, Co-Emperor with his brother Carinus 086/3333/188.
AD 284Julian.
AD 286-293Romano-British coinage: Carausius 113/3467/193; Carausius 127/3473/194.
AD 293-296Allectus 124/?/195.

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AD 284-305Diocletian 005/3433/190.
AD 286-305Maximianus, Co-Emperor with Diocletian 050/3540/191; Maximianus 061/3531/192.
AD 290Amphitheatre at Verona constructed.
AD 296-297Domitius Domitianus.
AD 303Intense persecution of Christians by Diocletian.
AD 305-306Constantius I (Chlorus) 092/3571/196.
AD 305-311Galerius Maximianus 091/3618/197; Galeria Valeria, wife of Galerius 164/3630/198; Galeria Valeria 176/3630/199.
AD 306-307Severus II 170/3647/200.
AD 306-312Maxentius 006/3676/201.
AD 306-337Constantine I (The Great) 020/?/202; Constantine I 042/3762/205; Constantine I 002/3762/205; Constantine I 003/3778/203; Constantine I 036/3798/213; Constantine I 037/3790/214.
AD 307-326Fausta, wife of Constantine I 163/3805/206.
AD 308-324Licinius I 007/3704/207; Licinius I 041/3708/208.
AD 309-313Maximinus II 070/3658/209.
AD 311Alexander.
AD 312Constantine defeated and killed Maxentius at battle of Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra), near Rome. Becomes sole Emperor of Rome, East and West
AD 313Constantine grants toleration of Christianity, eventually becoming Christian himself.
AD 314Valens (Note different Valens AD 364).
AD 317-324Licinius II 166/3715/210.
AD 317-326Crispus, eldest son of Constantine 021/3817/211.
AD 324Martinian
Talmudic period; Onkelos translates bible into Aramaic in Babylonia.
AD 325Helena, wife of Constantius, mother of Constantine I 118/3808/212.
AD 326Helena comes to Holy Land and establishes churches.
AD 328Byzantine Conquest.
AD 330Constantinople now new capital of the Roman Empire. Beginning of the Byzantium Period, endured until 1452.
AD 335-337Delmatius 122/3831/215.
AD 337-340Constantine II 031/3851/216.
AD 337-350Constans 051/3870/218.
AD 337-361Constantius II 045/3900/219.
AD 337-340Theodora, 2nd wife of Constantius Chlorus 130/3811/217.
AD 350-353Magnentius 028/3921/226.
AD 350Vetranio.
AD 350Nepotian.
AD 351-353Decentius, son of Magnentius 044/3934/221.
AD 351-354Constantius Gallus 019/3954/222.
AD 360Scrolls began to be replaced with books.
AD 360-363Julian II 080/3963/223.
AD 363-364Jovian 063/3986/224.

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AD 364-375Valentinian I 216/4002/225.
AD 364Valens, brother of Val I (Not Val of AD314) 008/4017/226; Valens 114/4013/227; Valens 125/4018/228.
AD 365-366Procopius.
AD 367-383Gratian 026/4039/230; Gratian 025/4038/229; Gratian 048/4041/231.
AD 375-392Valentinian II 216/4002/232; Valentinian II 030/4067/232; Valentinian II 049/4058/233; Valentinian II 074/4063/234.
AD 375Barbarous Radiate 128/?/235; Barbarous Radiate 167/?/236.

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AD 379-395Theodosius I (The Great) 027/4081/238.
AD 379Aellia Flacilla, wife of Theodosius 099/4093/237.
AD 383-388Magnus Maximus 076/4103/239.
AD 383-408Arcadius 060/4133/240.
AD 387-38Flavius Victor.
AD 392-394Eugenius 172/4118/241.
AD 393-423Honorius 090/?/242.
AD 395-404Eudoxia,wife of Arcadius 171/4141/243.
AD 395Roman Empire permanently divided into two halves, East and West. Eastern Empire lasted until 1452
AD 400Final codification of the "Jerusalem" Talmud, actually written mostly in Tiberias.
AD 410Alaric, King of the Visigoths, captures and sacks Rome.
AD 419Visigoths found kingdom within Gaul.
AD 429Visigoths found kingdom in Africa.
AD 452Atilla the Hun threatens to sack Rome but is dissuaded by Pope Leo I.
AD 455The Vandals sack Rome.
AD 476Odoacer, a Germanic chieftan, deposes the last Western Emperor of Rome concluding the fall of the Roman Western Empire.
AD 527-565Emperor Justinian responsible for building many churches during his reign, amongst them the Church of the Nativity in Jerusalem.
AD 614Persian invasion results in destruction of many churches.
AD 622Mohammed's "flight" from Mecca to Medina in Arabia.
Beginning of Islamic religion.
AD 628Defeat of the Persians and restoration of Byzantine rule in Israel.
AD 632Death of Mohammed. Arab Enpire now headed by a Caliph.
AD 636Arab invasion of Israel.
AD 638Arab Moslem conquest of Jerusalem by Caliph Omar; limited Jewish settlement in Jerusalem.
AD 650Mosque of Omar built on site of Solomon's Temple.
AD 691Caliph Abd-el-Malik builds Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
AD 775cIsrael ruled by Baghdad based Abbasids.
AD 768Charlemagne becomes King of the Franks.
AD 800Charlemagne crowned Emperor.
AD 962Otto the Great crowned Emperor in Germany.
AD 969Israel ruled by Egyptian Fatimids.
AD 980Anonymous Bronze (Byzantine) 225/?/244.

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1BC 31-AD 14Augustus
15138-161Antoninus Pius
16161-180Marcus Aurelius Joint Emp. with 17
17161-169Verus  Joint Emp. with 16
19193-(87 days)Pertinax
20193-Didius Julianus
21193-211Septimius Severus
21e193-194Pescennius Niger Rival emp. in the East
21w195-197Clodius Albinus Rival emp. in the West
22211-217Caracalla Joint Emp. with 23
23211Geta Joint Emp. with 22
26222-235Severus Alexander
27235-238Maximinus I
28238Gordian I Joint Emp. with son, 29
29238Gordian II Joint Emp. with 28
31238Pupienus Joint emp with 30
32238-244Gordian III
33244-249Philip I
34249-251Trajanus Decius
35251-253Trebonianus Gallus
37253-260Valerian Joint emp. with 38
38253-268Gallienus Joint emp. with 37
38w260-268Postumus Rival Emp., ruler of the Gallo-Roman state.
39268-270Claudius II Gothicus
46283-285Carinus Joint emp. with 47
47283-284Numerian Joint emp. with 46
48284-305Diocletian Joint emp. with 49
49286-305Maximian Joint emp. with 48
49307-308Maximian Abdicated with 48, but re-elected
50286/7-293Carausius Breakaway emp. in Britain and northern Gaul
51305-306Constantius I Chlorus Joint emp. with 52
52305-311Galerius Joint emp. with 51/53
53306-307Severus II Joint emp. with 52
306-312Maxentius Breakaway emperor
54306-337Constantine the Great Joint emp. with 55/56
55308-324Licinius Joint emp. with 54
56310-313Maximinus Daia Joint emp. with 54
57337-340Constantine II Joint emp. with 58/59
58337-340Constantius II Joint emp. with 57/58
59337-350Constans I Joint emp. with 57/58
60337-361Constantius II
350-353Magnentius Breakaway emp. in the West.
61361-363Julian the Apostate. A truly great Emperor, he renounced Christianity in favour of the old Roman gods. His untimely death, campaigning against the Persians, changed the course of history in the West.
62363-364Jovian, a total nonentity and completely unfit to rule, restored Christianity as the state religion.
63364-375Valentinian I Joint emp. with 64
64364-378Valens (East) Joint emp. with 63
65367-383Gratian Joint emp. with 66/67 (Gratian and ValentinianII were brothers
66375-392Valentinian II Joint emp. with 65/67. Valentinian II, a youth, was almost totally controlled by the Frankish barbarian Abrogast, he was probably murdered by him.
67379-395Theodosius I the Great East, then whole Empire; initially joint emp. with 65/66. He died unexpectedly in the prime of his life aged 49. After his death the Roman Empire was finally split into East and West.
383-388Maximus Rival emp. in the West. Defeated by Theodosius I.
395Eugenius Rival emp. in the West. Succeded Valentinian II, made Emperor by Abrogast who totally controlled him. He was the last Emperor who tried to restore the heathen gods at the genuine request of the Roman Senate. Defeated by Theodosius I. His defeat dealt a death blow to the pagan cause in Rome.
68395-423Arcadius East - Joint emp. with 69
69395-423Honorius Joint emp. with 67
407-411Constantine III Rival emp. in the West
70408-450Theodosius II East
71421Constantius III Joint emp. in the West
72423-425Johannes West
73425-455Valentinian III
74450-457Marcian Emperor in the East
75455Petronius Maximus Emperor in the West
76457-474Avitus Emperor in the West
77455-456Leo I the Great Emperor in the East
78457-461Majorian Emperor in the West
79461-465Libius Severus Emperor in the West
80467-472Anthemius Emperor in the West
81472Olybrius Emperor in the West
82473-474Glycerius Emperor in the West
83474-475Julius Nepos Emperor in the West
84474-475Zeno Emperor in the East
475-476Basilicus Rival emp. in the East
84476-499Zeno Regained his throne
85475-476Romulus 'Augustulus' Compelled to abdicate by Odoacer, he was the last Roman Emperor in the West.

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